DEPRESSION : Definition ,Causes,Types,Signs ,Symptoms, tests & its treatment.


Definition-Depression is a mental health disorder characterized by consistent depressed mood/low mood or loss of interest in activities, hampering your life on a daily basis.Depression is the main cause of disability in the world  according to world health organization.(WHO) .In this article,we will discuss,its types,causes,signs,symptoms,treatment.

A lack of sleep, poor eating habits, and not enough exercise are collectively responsible for depression in short.

But why is it so that it is so very common among students?


Academic stress  one of the mot common yet till the biggest cause of depression amongst us.

Others being:

Financial worries,

Pressure to get a good job after college

&Failed relationships

Depressed students are at a greater risk of developing substance abuse. Depressed school or college students are more likely to drink, smoke, and participate in risky sexual behaviors to cope with emotional pain than are their non depressed peers.

 Unlike most illnesses, which progress over time and can be described as a series of stages, that’s not true of depression. It can be segregated into types.

 The different types of depression are:

   1.  Major Depression

   2. Persistent Depressive Disorder

   3. Bipolar Disorder

   4. Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)

    5.Psychotic Depression

   6. Peripartum (Postpartum) Depression

   7.Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD)

             8.Atypical Depression

             9. Situational  Depression

Now what we need to understand is, It's normal to feel down once in a while, but if you're sad most of the time, you may have clinical depression.

It's a condition you can treat with medicine, talking to a therapist, and changes to your lifestyle,at the right time.

 There are many different types of depression as you saw above.Some are caused by events in your life, and some by, chemical changes in your brain.

 Whatever the cause,you should be letting your doctor know how you're feeling & duration since you have been feeling so. You then would be referred to someone who is a mental health specialist to help figure out the type of depression you have. This will help in diagnosis which is important in deciding the right treatment for you.

Lets discuss them in brief.


 "major depressive disorder" as doctors might call it. You are having major depression if you are feeling low at most days and at most time of the day. Even throughout a week. 

 Some symptoms you might have are:

  •    Weight loss /gain can be found
  •    Trouble getting to sleep or feeling sleepy during the day
  •    Feelings restless and agitated, or else very sluggish and slowed down physically or mentally
  •    Being tired and without energy throughout the day
  •    Feeling worthless or guilty
  •    Trouble concentrating or making decisions
  •    Thoughts of suicide appear
  •    Loss of interest in your activities


 You have this kind if you are having depression for a long time now, more rhan a year or two.

 You may have symptoms such as:

  •    Change in your appetite (not eating enough or overeating)
  •    Sleep too much or too little
  •    Trouble concentrating or making decisions
  •    Low self-esteem/self confidence
  •    Feel hopeless
  •    Lack of energy, or fatigue


Bipolar disorder is the new name for maniac depression.

Manic depression consists of periods of mania , where you feel very happy, alternating with episodes of depression.

  Symptoms  including: 

  •     lack of energy 
  •     fatigue 
  •    feelings of sadness or emptiness
  •    sleep problems
  •     decreased activity
  •     suicidal thoughts and pretty much the same as major depression.

However manic phase includes:

high energy,  reduced sleep,  irritability , racing thoughts and speech,reduced self-esteem and confidence, risky, and self-destructive behavior , feeling elated, “high,” or euphoric at times.

In severe cases, episodes can include hallucinations and delusions.


 People with major depression  may also go through periods of losing touch with reality. This is known as psychosis, which can involve hallucinations and delusions.

Hallucination is when you see, hear, smell, taste, or feel things that aren’t really there. An e.g. of this would be hearing voices or seeing people who aren’t present. A delusion is a closely held belief that’s clearly false or doesn’t make sense. But for someone who is experiencing psychosis, all of these things are very real and true.



Perinatal depression, clinically known as major depressive disorder with peripartum onset, occurs during pregnancy or within 4 weeks of childbirth. It’s often called postpartum depression which means,  depression after giving birth. Perinatal depression can also occur while you’re pregnant.

A pregnant body run by a lot of hormones.Hormonal changes that happen during pregnancy and childbirth are responsible which trigger changes in the brain that lead to mood swings.Hormonal dis-balance, Lack of sleep and physical discomfort that often accompanies pregnancy and having a newborn adds up to the issue.

 Symptoms of perinatal depression can be as severe as those of major depression and include:

  •     anxiety and anger
  •     sadness and exhaustion
  •    thoughts of self-harm or harming the baby
  •     extreme worry about the baby‘s health and safety
  •     difficulty caring for yourself or the new baby

 Women who lack support/ have had depression before are at increased risk of developing perinatal depression, but it can happen to anyone per se.


Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is severe form of premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Women go through the urge to even do harm to herself or the baby during this phase.

These psychological symptoms of PMDD are more severe than those associated with PMS. For e.g, some women might feel more emotional in the days leading up to their period. But someone with PMDD might experience a level of depression and sadness that gets in the way of everyday functions.


Also known as major depressive disorder with seasonal pattern.

 It is depression that’s related to certain seasons. For most people, it tends to happen during the winter months when the day grow shorter and nights longer and you get less of sunlight throughout the day.

 Symptoms include:

  •    willingness social withdrawal
  •     more sleep
  •     daily feelings of sadness, hopelessness, or unworthiness

 Seasonal depression also may get worse as the season progresses and can lead to suicidal thoughts. Thing improve a spring comes along and you get more of sunlight.


Positivity is the cure to all problem as we say ,in case of  Atypical depression it temporarily goes away in response to positive events.

However,atypical depression as the name might suggest, isn’t unusual or rare. People with atypical depression,might seem normal to others and hence are difficult to notice.

 Symptoms of  this depression can include:

  •     increased appetite and weight gain
  •     sleeping much more than usual
  •     heaviness/ pain in your arms or legs that lasts an hour or more than a day
  •     sensitivity to criticism
  •     feeling of rejection


Stressful events can lead to Situational depression. Sometimes situations in life brings out the wort in you. And in this case,you might suffer from situational depression.

      Such as:

  •     facing death of a loved one
  •     life-threatening illness
  •     being in emotionally or physically abusive relationships
  •     being unemployed  or without any job
  •     facing serious financial difficulties
  •     facing extensive legal troubles

 Psychotherapy might help you get through this.



How can you know which type you have?

Knowing if you are suffering from either of the above  is important to identify because eventually it is going to effect your daily life. One shouldn't take  the signs lightly.

All the above types of depression mentioned here are treatable .May take some time but curable .

If you feel you have some of these symptoms,you should right away seek help and visit your psychiatrist or doctor .

When its your first time and you want to approach to a medical professional try to explain why and when did you start having these symptoms and detail it all out. It might be a little uncomfortable for you in the beginning,but do tell .So that it becomes easy for the practitioner to diagnose the type and plan the treatment accordingly.



A lot of people ask if homeopathy can help in cases of depression,well i would like to explain that to you below.

Signs and symptoms are very important while considering this field of treatment.Homeopathic medicines are prescribed based on the symptoms. And that's why they have their on way of treatment .

The idea behind homeopathy is that symptoms of illness are not just something “wrong” with the person but are actually efforts of their bodymind to fight infection and/or to adapt to stress.

According to a Journal of Traditional Medicine and Clinical Neuropathy,

Homeopathic medicines can be used for treatment of psychological disorders such as anxiety and depression.  Many psychiatric problems can be relieved by homeopathic therapy. A study result shows that in many clinical findings homeopathy can cure schizophrenia, autism, OCD, agoraphobia, suicidal depression, hysteria, sleep disorders as well .

Homeopaths generally find that it is preferable to prescribe individualized homeopathic remedies to each patient to for long-term sustained results.




The number of people who actually believe that depression exits and is destroying lives is very less.They choose to ignore the signs ad symptoms.But,nowadays,scenarios have changed. Celebrities and T.V. actors are promoting its awareness and helpline numbers which can prove out to be beneficiary to a lot of people.

There are a lot of reasons one doesn't simply go out seeking help.

Here is the list of some reasons :

 1. Don’t want others to find out .

2. Concerned about effect on job.

3. Didn’t think I needed it at that time .

4. Concerned about confidentiality .

5. Doesn’t think treatment would help .

6. Others opinion matters.

7. Thoughts  that I might be forced to take medicines.

8. Don’t know where to go for help.

9. Can’t afford the cost of treatment.

10. Don’t have time/too busy.

11. Has no transportation or treatment is too far.

12. Thought  that I can handle it without treatment .


Treatment of depression includes:

We saw above the reasons why one doesn't always go seek help when in depression.

Next what we should focus on is how to reduce these reasons which appear as barriers.

Encouragement- The person is already feeling low energy and a lack of motivation,key signs and symptoms of depression. Encouragement by the near and dear ones might bring about a huge change in someone's life.

Both practical and psychological barriers to treatment need to be addressed. Practical barriers include cost concerns , availability of transportation, not knowing where to go for treatment,whether the person has financial help for the treatment. etc. Psychological barriers include obstacles such as worries about society,other people's opinion,side effects of medications and doubts about the effectiveness of treatment.

Depression can be treated, with the right help at the right time. Identification of the type,looking for signs,symptoms can help in future for treatments.In this competitive world ,let try to be a bit sensitive towards those who are struggling with it. Help and encourage those in need. Always look out for your friends,family members,partners,neighbors,batch mates.You are capable of of bringing out change in someone's life.


  1. Very much informative. Many people ignore it to take help of professional for reasons you mentioned. It really make their life disaster. Mass awareness is still needed.

  2. I like how you have countered the problem of depression in this post. Helpful post indeed!

  3. Very useful post on mental health or disorder. Many people don't know about mental disorder or mental problem, don't know the symptoms.

  4. Nice post on today's People Mental Stress ! Keep it up

  5. Actual post based on present situations

  6. This is a great Informative article

  7. Thanks for such a great article 😊

  8. Very informative article! I hope you have mentioned all about depression in the blog itself. keep sharing.

  9. Good article
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  10. I loved that you wrote about something we all feel but the society does not consider this seriously. It was very informative loved it.

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